Silleuksa Temple – 신륵사 (Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do)

CSC_2932

The beautifully scenic view at Silleuksa Temple in Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do.

Hello Again Everyone!!

Silleuksa Temple in Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do means “Divine Bridle Temple,” in English. While there isn’t all that much concrete information on the foundation of the temple, it’s believed by some that it was established during King Jinpyeong’s reign (r. 579-632), others believe it was founded by the famed monk, Wonhyo-daesa (671-686). The name of the temple is related to a legend where an uncontrollable horse was reined in by the power of the Buddha. Throughout the years, it’s been expanded and destroyed by fires. In 1469, Silleuksa Temple became the prayer sanctuary to the royal mausoleum to the great King Sejong. Currently, the temple houses numerous treasures.

You first approach the temple grounds to the west of Silleuksa Temple. With the Temple Stay facilities to your left, you’ll pass through a guardian gate with two fiercely painted Vajra warriors on its entry doors. A little further along, and with the Han River to your right, as well as a pavilion that looks over the serene body of water, you’ll finally come to the outskirts of the temple grounds.

The first thing to greet you at the temple is the rather wide Boje-ru pavilion. To the right of this pavilion, and past a stone marker, you’ll finally enter the main temple courtyard. Straight ahead is a beautiful seven-tier marble pagoda that dates back to the early Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910). It’s masterfully adorned with dragon and lotus carvings. This pagoda is framed by the Geukrakbo-jeon main hall at Silleuksa Temple. The exterior walls are adorned with some recent, and amazingly rendered, Shimu-do, Ox-Herding, murals. As for inside this main hall, there are a triad of statues that rest on the main altar. Seated in the centre sits Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise). He’s joined on either side by two standing statues of Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion) and Daesaeji-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom and Power for Amita-bul).

To the rear of the Geukrakbo-jeon, and slightly to the left, is the Josa-dong. Unfortunately, the hall was under renovation when I visited; but typically, it houses the portraits of the famed monks Naong (1320-76), Muhak (1327-1405), and Jigong (d.1363). This hall is also the oldest at Silleuksa Temple.

To the left of the Josa-dong is the Myeongbu-jeon, which houses a green-haired statue of Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife) on the main altar. He’s joined on all sides by seated statues of the Ten Kings of the Underworld. Just outside this hall is an altar with a highly original piece of circular artwork dedicated to Jijang-bosal, as well. To the rear of this hall are a collection of stupas that house the remains of former monks at Silleuksa Temple, including the Naong’s stupa.

To the right of the main hall, and past the monks’ dorms, is the Samseong-gak shaman shrine hall. Inside this hall are some of the more original paintings dedicated to the three most popular shaman deities in Korea. Have a close look at the meditative posture Dokseong (The Lonely Saint) is striking, as well as the elfish-looking Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit) who is joined by a massive tiger.

But perhaps Silleuksa Temple is most famous for its location. With it being one of a handful of river temples in Korea, it makes for some great pictures. As you approach the river from the hillside, you’ll pass by the six-tier brick pagoda, which is somewhat reminiscent of the brick pagoda at Songnimsa Temple in Daegu. Just to the rear of this pagoda at Silleuksa Temple is a memorial tablet to the Daejang-gak, which was a two-story library built during the late Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392).

Just past these two treasures, treasure #230 and #226, is the Han River. Beautifully perched alongside a historic pagoda is a pavilion that people can enjoy the peace and quiet of the flowing river. This area of the temple also allows for some of the most picturesque photos that you’ll get at any temple in Korea.

Admission to the temple costs 2,200 won.

HOW TO GET THERE: To get to Silleuksa Temple, you’ll first need to get to the Dong Seoul Bus Terminal and take an intercity bus bound for Yeoju. The first bus leaves at 6:30 a.m. and the final one leaves at 22:30. These buses to Yeoju leave every thirty minutes. From the Yeoju Intercity Bus Terminal, you’ll need to catch Bus #980. You can catch this bus after leaving the terminal and heading right for about 100 metres. Cross the road and you can catch the #980 bus from this stop. Finally, you’ll need to get off at the Silleuksa Temple bus stop.

OVERALL RATING: 9/10. There is so much to love about Silleuksa Temple. Probably its number one feature is its location amongst a park where the temple is located, as well as the beautiful Han River that flows just south of the temple grounds. Add into the mix the amazing paintings housed inside the Samseong-gak, as well as a handful of treasures including Naong’s stupa, and you have ample reason to get out and see the beautifully scenic Silleuksa Temple in Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do Province.

CSC_2854

The guardian gate as you first approach Silleuksa Temple.

CSC_2856

One of the Vajra warriors protecting the temple.

CSC_2858

The park and pavilion you’ll pass by and through to get to the temple.

CSC_2860

The neighbouring Han River.

CSC_2861

The first view of Silleuksa Temple as you approach.

CSC_2863

The Boje-ru Pavilion at Silleuksa Temple.

CSC_2864

Some of the initial sites at the temple.

CSC_2867

The Geukrakbo-jeon main hall at Silleuksa Temple.

CSC_2906

The seven-tier marble pagoda.

CSC_2908

Some of the intricate artwork adorning the pagoda.

CSC_2900

One of the Shimu-do, Ox-Herding, murals on the main hall.

CSC_2883

Another angle of the main hall at Silleuksa Temple.

CSC_2870

The Myeongbu-jeon at the temple.

CSC_2871

Some of the neighbouring artwork of Jijang-bosal.

CSC_2875

The main altar inside the Myeongbu-jeon.

CSC_2881

The stupas behind the Myeongbu-jeon.

CSC_2879

The view from the stupas of Silleuksa Temple.

CSC_2885

A look towards the Samseong-gak.

CSC_2890

The amazing Sanshin mural.

CSC_2914

A look towards the six-story brick pagoda at Silleuksa Temple.

CSC_2922

A better look at both the brick pagoda and the neighbouring river.

CSC_2930

The tranquil river and the watchmen pagoda.

CSC_2943

 A better look at both.

Now and Then: Beopjusa Temple

???? ??? ??? ?? ??

Beopjusa Temple in the early 20th century.

Hello Again Everyone!!

Beopjusa Temple was first established in 553 A.D. by the monk Uisin. The name of the temple means “The Place Where the Dharma Resides Temple,” in English. The reason that the temple was named Beopjusa Temple is that Uisin brought back a number of Indian sutras from his travels that he wanted to house at the temple.

During the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392), Beopjusa Temple housed as many as 3,000 monks. At one point in the 1100’s, over 30,000 monks gathered at Beopjusa Temple to pray for the dying national priest, Uicheon. Beopjusa Temple remained an important part of Buddhism throughout Korea during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910); however, the temple shrank in size as state support for Buddhism nearly disappeared in Confucian led ideology at this point in Korean history. It’s believed that King Taejo, the founder of the Joseon Dynasty, retired to a spot near Beopjusa Temple after tiring from all of his sons’ fighting. Like most other temples in Korea, Beopjusa Temple suffered from extensive damage at the hands of the invading Japanese during the Imjin War (1592-98). A majority of the buildings at the temple were restored in 1624, including the famed Palsang-jeon wooden pagoda.

The temple is beautifully located in Songnisan National Park in Boeun County, Chungcheongbuk-do. In the 1960s, the temple underwent extensive repairs and refurbishment. In 1988 the massive bronze statue of Mireuk-bul (The Future Buddha) that stands at 33 metres in height replaced the twenty year old cement statue that resided at the temple. Most recently, Beopjusa Temple participates in the highly popular Temple Stay Program that’s conducted in English. In total, the temple houses three national treasures and twelve additional treasures. Of the three national treasures, the five-story wooden pagoda is National Treasure #55.

Beopjusa Iljumun

The Iljumun Gate at Beopjusa Temple.

Beopjusa2

The famous Palsang-jeon Hall at Beopjusa Temple.

Beopjusa

A farmer to the side of the temple.

beopjusa 1960

Beopjusa Temple during the 1960s.

Picture-379

Today, what the Iljumun Gate looks like.

Picture-389

The Beopjusa Temple courtyard.

Picture-387

With a closer look at the Palsang-jeon wooden pagoda.

Jangchunsa Temple – 장춘사 (Haman, Gyeongsangnam-do)

CSC_1857

 The Yaksa-jeon at Jangchunsa Temple in Haman, Gyeongsangnam-do.

Hello Again Everyone!!

Located up in the mountains of Mt. Mureungsa, in Haman, Gyeongsangnam-do, is Jangchunsa Temple. Jangchunsa Temple was first constructed in 832 A.D. by State Priest Muyeum-guksa. King Heungdeok was rewarding Muyeum for repulsing the Japanese invaders using some sort of mysterious powers to throw off their eastern neighbours.

You first approach the temple up a long mountainous road, until eventually you reach the compact temple grounds. Slightly to the left, and through a low-hanging gate, lies the temple’s main courtyard. Standing in the centre of the temple courtyard is a slender five-tier stone pagoda. All around the pagoda are the temple facilities for the monks like the kitchen, dorms, and visitors’ centre.

Behind the five-tier pagoda is Jangchunsa Temple’s main hall. Rebuilt in 1979, the main hall’s exterior walls are decorated with simple, yet elegant, Shimu-do, Ox-Herding, murals. As for the interior, and sitting on the main altar, are a triad of white statues centred by Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). He’s joined on either side by Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom) and Bohyun-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power). To the right of the main hall hangs a painting dedicated to Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife), as well as a mural dedicated to Dokseong (The Lonely Saint). To the left of the main altar, and probably the most masterful painting of the lot, is the older-looking guardian mural. Unfortunately, while I was invited in to pray by two Korean women, they didn’t allow me to take pictures (which I completely respect, as they were praying).

To the right of the main hall is probably the smallest Yongwang-dang shrine hall I have yet to see in Korea. Housed inside the shrine is a framed mural dedicated to Yongwang (The Dragon King); while the exterior walls are painted with two separate dragon murals, as well as a flaming pearl. To the left of the main hall is the Josa-jeon Hall, which is dedicated to past monks that formerly called Jangchunsa Temple home.

Through a corridor between buildings, and up a set of stairs, you’ll come to the two final shrine halls that visitors can explore at Jangchunsa Temple. The first is the Yaksa-jeon, which houses a rather campy golden statue dedicated to Yaksayore-bul (The Medicine Buddha). While you wouldn’t realize it when you first look at the stone statue covered in gold paint, the statue of Yaksayore-bul actually dates back to the late Unified Silla Dynasty or the early Goryeo Dynasty. The exterior walls to this diminutive hall are adorned with murals that are dedicated to the life cycle.

A little further along the ridge-line, and you’ll come to the equally small Sanshin-gak. Careful when entering this hall, because the ceiling is extremely low. Housed inside this hall is a beautiful mural dedicated to the Mountain Spirit, Sanshin. It’s also from this vantage point that you get a beautiful look down the valley and down towards the city of Haman.

HOW TO GET THERE: Because Jangchunsa Temple is rather remote, the only way to get to the temple from the Haman Bus Terminal is by car. You can drive your own car, if you have one. The drive should take about 35 minutes. Or if you don’t have your own car, you can take a taxi from the bus terminal. The ride should cost about 35,000 won, one way.

OVERALL RATING: 4/10. I have to admit, I was a bit disappointed by Jangchunsa Temple. Usually, if I’m going to travel over an hour to see a temple, I expect a little more. Unfortunately, between its rather small size and the underwhelming golden statue of Yaksayore-bul, this temple didn’t completely deliver. With that said, the interior to the main hall, with its unique statues and paintings, as well as the masterful Sanshin mural are nice in their own right. So if you’re in the area, and you want to do something on a weekend, perhaps Jangchunsa Temple could be an option; however, the neighbouring Neunggasa Temple is the better option of the two.

CSC_1831

The temple as you approach.

CSC_1833

The entry gate to the temple courtyard.

CSC_1835

One of the fierce guardians adorning the temple gate.

CSC_1836

A look up towards the temple’s main hall.

CSC_1839

The extremely compact Yongwang-dang.

CSC_1841

One of the beautiful paintings adorning the Yongwang-dang.

DSC_1731

One of the Ox-Herding murals decorating the exterior walls to the main hall.

CSC_1869

The corridor that leads past the Josa-jeon and up towards the upper courtyard.

CSC_1848

The stone stairs that lead the way with the Yaksa-jeon in sight.

CSC_1853

One of the life-cycle paintings adorning the Yaksa-jeon.

CSC_1850

The one thousand year old, golden Yaksayore-bul.

CSC_1856

The neighbouring Sanshin-gak.

CSC_1860

With a look inside at the mural dedicated to Sanshin.

CSC_1858

And the beautiful view from the Sanshin-gak.

Neunggasa Temple – 능가사 (Haman, Gyeongsangnam-do)

CSC_1882

 The amazing riverside view of Neunggasa Temple in Haman, Gyeongsangnam-do.

Hello Again Everyone!!

On the southern banks of the Nakdong River is the scenically located Neunggasa Temple in Haman, Gyeongsangnam-do. As you first approach the temple from the temple’s parking lot, you’ll notice a large granite statue dedicated to Yaksayore-bul (The Medicine Buddha). This shrine area is fronted by equally beautiful stone lanterns, as well as a recently constructed stupa.

A sharp left from this ten metre tall statue is the temple’s main courtyard. To your left is the recently built bell pavilion. Straight ahead, and elevated over top the temple’s visitors’ centre, kitchen, and monks dorms, is the temple’s main hall. The main hall is beautifully decorated with Palsang-do murals that adorn the hall’s exterior walls. Stepping inside the rather spacious main hall are a triad of statues that sit on the main altar. Sitting in the centre is Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha), who is joined to the left and right by Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom) and Bohyun-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power). Hanging on the walls are a collection of masterful murals. To the immediate left is a mural dedicated to Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife). Hanging to the right, and by the same artist, are two murals. One of these murals is dedicated to Chilseong (The Seven Stars), while the other is the rather long guardian mural.

To the right of the main hall is the Gwaneeum-jeon. The exterior walls to this hall are decorated with various murals dedicated to Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion). Most memorable of the lot is the painting of two parents praying for the loss of their child. Seated inside this hall, and all alone on the main altar, is Gwanseeum-bosal. To the left of the main altar hang two older, and unique, shaman murals. The first is dedicated to Dokseong (The Lonely Saint), while the other pays homage to Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit). To the right of the main altar hangs an equally older looking mural, no less original in composition, dedicated to Yongwang (The Dragon King), who appears to be surrounded by protective spirits.

But perhaps the most striking feature to Neunggasa Temple is its amazing location. Rarely will you find a temple located next to a river. Of course there are exceptions like Oeosa Temple, but these are the exceptions, and not the rule. Stepping outside the temple grounds, and hanging a left, you can make your way across a blue pedestrian bridge that you can enjoy some amazing views of both the Nakdong River at one of its wider berths, as well as the crowning Neunggasa Temple on the neighbouring hillside.

HOW TO GET THERE: You’ll first need to make your way to the Changwon Intercity Bus Terminal. From this terminal, you’ll need to take either Bus #705 or #707 and get off at the Masan Post Office stop. From there, you’ll need to board Bus #113-1 and get off at the Namji Bus Terminal. From this terminal, take a taxi the rest of the way to Neunggasa Temple. The fare should be about 4,400 won and the ride should last about seven minutes.

OVERALL RATING: 7/10. Neunggasa Temple is one of the most beautifully located temples you’ll find in Korea. With the commanding view of the neighbouring Nakdong River, it’s a bit of a surprise that Neunggasa Temple isn’t better known. With that being said, and as a compliment to all its natural beauty, the shrine halls, shaman paintings, and the towering Yaksayore-bul statue can only help elevate the temple’s little known reputation. While the city of Haman isn’t that well known for its temples, Neunggasa Temple definitely takes a bit of a bite out of that reputation.

CSC_1877

Yaksayore-bul that welcomes you to Neunggasa Temple.

CSC_1831

The temple courtyard.

CSC_1834

The Gwaneum-jeon at Neunggasa Temple

CSC_1865

The consoling Gwanseeum-bosal.

CSC_1838

The main altar inside the Gwaneum-jeon.

CSC_1836

The older-looking Sanshin mural in the Gwaneum-jeon.

CSC_1840

As well as Yongwang inside the Gwaneum-jeon.

CSC_1847

A look towards the main hall at Neunggasa Temple.

CSC_1859

One of the Palsang-do murals.

CSC_1856

A look inside the main hall.

CSC_1870

The neighbouring bridge that allows for some amazing views.

CSC_1881a

A picturesque view of the temple-by-the-river.

CSC_1888

 And a view of the neighbouring Nakdong River.

Now and Then: The City of Gyeongju

Anapji1950s

Anapji, in Gyeongju, during the 1950s.

Hello Again Everyone!!

The city of Gyeongju, in Gyeongsangbuk-do, has a long and storied past that is closely tied to the Silla Kingdom. From 57 B.C. to 935 A.D., for nearly a thousand years of history, Gyeongju was the capital city of the Silla Kingdom. Formerly, Gyeongju was known as Seorabeol and Gyerim. It wasn’t until 935 A.D. that the town became known as Gyeongju. During the 992 years that the Silla Kingdom reigned, it was the longest period of rule by a single dynasty in Korean history. During this period in Korean history, the Silla Kingdom would rise from a small tribal nation to unify the entire Korean peninsula.

Dotted throughout the Gyeongju cityscape are some thirty-five national treasures and a countless amount of treasures. When Buddhism came to the Silla Kingdom in the early 6th century, it reached its zenith with the establishment of Bulguksa Temple and Seokguram Hermitage in the late 8th century. In addition to these internationally famed sites, there are a countless amount of lesser known sites spread throughout the entire city including Anapji and Cheonseongdae. Additionally, there’s Chilbulam Hermitage, Sambulsa Temple, Samneung-gol Valley, and Bucheobawi on Mt. Namsan. There’s also Baeknyulsa Temple and Gulbulsa-ji on Mt. Sogeumgangsan that visitors can see when enjoying Gyeongju. There really are an amazing amount of sites to experience when visiting the thousand year old capital of the Silla Kingdom.

More recently, Gyeongju is the second largest city by area in all of Gyeongsangbuk-do Province next to Andong. And as of 2008, it had a population of nearly 270,000 people whose major source of income revolves around the tourist trade. So by promoting their past, people of today can prosper from nearly a thousand years of history.

Anapji 1970s

Anapji in the early 1970s.

Anapji 1975

Anapji during the 1975 excavation.

Cheonseongdae

Cheonseongdae Observatory

Bucheobawi2

Bucheobawi from Mt. Namsan in Gyeongju.

Bucheobawi

Another image of Bucheobawi.

Chilbulam Gyeongju

The amazing Seven Buddhas statue at Chilbulam Hermitage.

Sambulsa

The three Buddhas from Sambulsa Temple on the western side of Mt. Namsan.

Samneung-gol

Yep, that’s someone standing on the shoulders of the Large Seated Statue of Mireuk-bul in Samneung Valley on Mt. Namsan.

무열왕능비old_1

The turtle-based stele dedicated to King Taejong on Mt. Seondosan.

사면불석

An older image of the stone sculpture from Gulbulsa-ji Temple Site on Mt. Sogeumgangsan.

백률사

The stark landscape from Mt. Sogeumgangsan, and a look towards Baeknyulsa Temple.

Picture-150

Anapji as it appears today.

CSC_0988

An up close of Bucheobawi.

DSC_1612

The three Buddhas at Sambulsa Temple. Now, they’re sheltered under a wooden pavilion.

CSC_1621

The seven stone Buddhas at Chilbulam Hermitage.

DSC_1240

The Large Seated Statue of Mireuk-bul as it appears today.

CSC_1276

The better protected Taejong stele from Mt. Seondosan.

CSC_0899

A more recent picture from Gulbulsa-ji Temple Site.

CSC_0876

And a look over top the main hall at Baeknyulsa Temple.

Seongdeokam Hermitage – 성덕암 (Masan, Gyeongsangnam-do)

CSC_1563

The golden sunshine early on a Saturday morning over the port of Masan from Seongdeokam Hermitage.

Hello Again Everyone!!

Located just west of the Masan port, and lying on the eastern slopes of a neighbouring hill, is the unassuming Seongdeokam Hermitage in Masan, Gyeongsangnam-do. After navigating your way down some side-streets, you’ll finally be welcomed to the hermitage by a three-in-one cluster of buildings. Around the exterior walls to this multi-faceted building, at least at the entry, are various incarnations of Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion).

It’s just to the left of this building, and taking a right in the bend in the road, that you’ll backtrack back towards the three-in-one hall. The first thing, rather uniquely, that is housed inside this building is the hermitage’s kitchen. Just a little further along, and you’ll come to a passage way that will lead you to the hermitage’s main hall. Before stepping inside the main hall, take a step out onto the terrace area that gives off amazing views of the shimmering port down below. It’s especially beautiful in the early morning.

As for the main hall, the exterior walls have remained in their natural finish. Stepping inside the main hall, you’ll find a statue of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha) sitting all alone on the main altar. He’s joined on either side, underneath their own canopies, by Gwanseeum-bosal to the left and Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife) to the right. But it’s the guardian mural and the Gamno-do mural that truly stand out. In fact, all the murals are highly unique inside the main hall. The guardian mural, for example, has a cartoonish feel to the shaman figures illustrated in the painting. As for the Gamno-do mural, which focuses on funeral rites, it, too, is highly modern in its composition with both Osama Bin Laden and George W. Bush appearing at the bottom of the mural.

To the rear of the complex sits the Gwaneeum-jeon. Just like the main hall, the Gwaneeum-jeon’s exterior walls remain unpainted. However, housed inside this hall, amongst the colourful, paper lotus flowers that hang from the ceiling, is a multi-armed and headed statue of the Bodhisattva of Compassion.

The final set of halls at the hermitage that can be explored by visitors are situated to the left, rear of the more modern building complex. Just past the monks’ dorms, and housed a little further up the hill, is the Samseong-gak shaman shrine hall, the Sanshin-gak, and the Yongwang-dang. The largest of the three is the Samseong-gak. Housed inside this hall are a triad of paintings. Sitting in the centre hangs an older mural dedicated to Chilseong (The Seven Stars). This painting is joined to the right by a more modern painting of Chilseong. To the left of these two murals is the mural dedicated to Dokseong (The Lonely Saint). This painting is both vibrantly painted and masterfully executed.

The final two halls, which are more like shipping containers with large, heavy metal entry doors that are difficult to pry open, is the Sanshin-gak and the Yongwang-dang. Housed inside the Sanshin-gak is an atypical painting dedicated to the Mountain Spirit. Uniquely, Sanshin looks more like an elf than a dignified Mountain Spirit. But you be the judge.

HOW TO GET THERE: From the Masan Intercity Bus Terminal, you can take bus #101, or city bus #122 at the Daeshin Bookstore, which is just outside the terminal. You’ll need to take either bus for ten stops and get off at the Burim Market stop. You’ll need to walk towards the hill for ten minutes from the stop to get to Seongdeokam Hermitage.

OVERALL RATING: 6/10. This hermitage houses quite a few firsts for me in the 300 plus temples and hermitages I’ve visited throughout the Korean peninsula. One of those firsts is the hyper modern Gamno-do painting that is, at least in part, thematically based on 9/11. Another first is the elfish-looking Sanshin mural, as well as the bundle of halls that include the main hall and the Gwaneeum-jeon. And to help elevate this hermitage a little more are the beautiful hillside views of the Masan port down below. While not the easiest to get to or find, it’s well worth a visit to Seongdeokam Hermitage for something a little different from your typical Korean Buddhist temple.

CSC_1522

The initial view from Seongdeokam Hermitage.

CSC_1525

The multi-faceted building that includes the main hall and kitchen.

CSC_1555

The view from the main hall.

CSC_1546

The cartoonish guardian mural as you first enter the main hall.

CSC_1550

To the left of the main altar sits Gwanseeum-bosal.

CSC_1549

The main altar with a stout Seokgamoni-bul sitting on it.

CSC_1552

The amazing, and modern, Gamno-do mural at Seongdeokam Hermitage.

CSC_1548

A close-up of the 9/11 themed section of the Gamno-do mural.

DSC_1484

A beautiful bronze bell hanging from the main hall.

CSC_1566

An up-close of the meditative, and multi-arm and headed, Gwanseeum-bosal.

CSC_1570

A look towards some of the shaman shrine halls.

CSC_1524

The first is the Samseong-gak shaman shrine hall.

CSC_1532

The central image of Chilseong.

CSC_1531

Who is joined to the left  by Dokseong (The Lonely Saint).

CSC_1545

The shipping container-like entry to the Sanshin-gak.

CSC_1538

And a look inside the Sanshin-gak at the elfish Mountain Spirit.

Now and Then: Haeinsa Temple

Haeinsa 1902

Inside the famed Janggyeong-panjeon at Haeinsa Temple from 1902.

Hello Again Everyone!!

Haeinsa Temple was first founded in 802 A.D. The name of the temple, in English, means “Temple of the Ocean Mudra Temple.” Alongside Tongdosa Temple and Songgwangsa Temple, Haeinsa Temple is one of the three jewel temples. Haeinsa Temple represents the Dharma aspect of the three jewels.

The temple is located in present day Hapcheon, Gyeongsangnam-do, and it was established by two monks: Suneung and Ijeong. According to legend, the temple was established after the two monks helped heal King Aejang’s wife from a serious illness. As a sign of appreciation, the king ordered the construction of Haeinsa Temple. Another story that surrounds the creation of the temple, as written by Choe Chiwon in 900 A.D., states that Suneung and Ijeong gained the support of the queen who had converted to Buddhism. Through her new found devotion, and financial backing, they constructed the temple. Either way, the amazing Haeinsa Temple was constructed for future generations to enjoy and appreciate.

Throughout the years, Haeinsa Temple has been expanded a number of times first starting in the 10th century. It was then continued in 1488, 1622, and 1644. Tragically, the temple was burned to the ground in 1817 and was rebuilt the following year. Amazingly, the temple has had more than its fair share of fires with seven in total devastating the grounds.

During the Korean War (1950-53), a crisis was averted in September, 1951. It would be the closest that the Tripitaka Koreana would come to its complete destruction. After the Battle of Incheon, South Korea was turning the war around; however, some North Korean forces refused to retreat. In total, about a thousand North Korean soldiers remained around Haeinsa Temple as a guerrilla force. The U.N. forces were ordered to bomb Haeinsa Temple using four bombers to weed out these enemy forces from allied territory. Fortunately, Kim Young was the leading pilot of these planes, and he disobeyed the command to bomb the temple. In time, the North Korean forces retreated and Haeinsa Temple was spared from bombing.

Haeinsa Temple is best known for the Tripitaka Koreana, which was first housed at the temple in 1398. In total, 81,258 wooden blocks are housed inside the Janggyeong-panjeon, which acts as the blocks’ library. The Tripitaka Koreana was first made in 1087; however, they were completely destroyed by the invading Mongols. It would take over a hundred years, and from 1236 to 1251, for them to be remade again under the royal order of King Gojong (r. 1213-1259).

Haeinsa Temple houses three national treasures and thirteen treasures. Of these three national treasures, all three are directly related to the Tripitaka Koreana including the wooden blocks and the blocks’ library, the Janggyeong-panjeon. In 1995, the temple was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Haeinsa

Visitors out in front of the Iljumun Gate at Haeinsa Temple from the turn of the 20th century.

Haeinsa Gugwangru 1915

The Gugwang-ru Pavilion from 1915.

Haeinsa pagoda 1915

The three-story pagoda from out in front of the main hall from 1915.

Haeinsa 1961

The main hall from 1961.

haeinsa Samseonggak

The former Samseong-gak; and now, present day Dokseong-gak, from the 1960s.

Haeinsa2

Inside the Janggyeong-panjeon library, once more.

DSC_0240-1024x678

How the Iljumun Gate looks in its present form.

CSC_0485-1024x678

The main hall and three-story stone pagoda.

DSC_0361-1024x678

The Dokseong-gak.

DSC05579

A look inside the Janggyeong-panjeon in 2007. Unfortunately, you can no longer take any photography inside the library.

Daeyulsa Temple – 대율사 (Gunwi, Gyeongsangbuk-do)

CSC_0711

The shrine that houses the ancient Buddha statue at Daeyulsa Temple in Gunwi, Gyeongsangbuk-do.

Hello Again Everyone!!

Daeyulsa Temple is a little known temple that is small in size and is reached up a narrow alleyway-type road. In fact, I didn’t even notice it the first time I passed it. But once you finally do notice the gate for the temple with its metal manja across the gate, and the small entranceway that allows you access to Daeyulsa Temple, you’ll be pleasantly surprised by what awaits you.

The first thing to greet you is a row of monks’ dorms to the left. And to the right is a house. A little further in, and you’ll notice the main highlight, by far, to this diminutive little temple. Standing out in front of the main hall, and under its own little protective shrine hall, is the Silla Kingdom (57 B.C. – 935 A.D.) statue of the Buddha. It stands 2.65 metres in height and is a bit strange. The right hand shows the mudra of boundless mercy, while the left hand is placed over the chest. The statue looks stiff in appearance with most of its facial features washed away by the passage of time.

To the left of the ancient Buddha is the Sanshin-gak, which is just barely squeezed inside the stone fence confines of the temple. Inside rests a painting of Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit) with a cartoonish looking tiger by his side and a dongja (assistant) offering him peaches.

Just behind these two shrine halls is the smaller-looking main hall. The concrete walls are adorned with fading Shimu-do, Ox-Herding, murals. As for the interior, and resting on the main altar, are a triad of statues centred by Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). He’s joined on either side by Bohyun-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power) and Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom). To the far left is a mural dedicated to Chilseong (The Seven Stars), while to the right hangs a painting of Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife). In front of this painting is a slim-looking statue of a green haired Jijang-bosal.

HOW TO GET THERE: There are two buses that go to Daeyulsa Temple from the Gunwi Intercity Bus Terminal. The first is the Gunwi to Dundeok bus, while the other is the Gunwi to 2nd Seokuram bus. In either case, you’ll need to take the bus for 16 stops and get off at the Daeyul 2 Ri stop. From this stop, you’ll need to walk eight minutes to the west to get to Daeyulsa Temple.

OVERALL RATING: 4/10. This temple won’t blow you away with all the halls it offers. Instead, the main feature to Daeyulsa Temple is the Silla-era stone statue of the Buddha. There are a couple other features like the nice Sanshin painting and the Jijang-bosal statue, but the real reason anyone comes to this temple is to see the ancient Buddhist statue.

CSC_0723

The entrance to Daeyulsa Temple.

CSC_0722

The shrine and main hall at the temple.

CSC_0700

A look at the main highlight to this temple: the Silla-era Buddha.

CSC_0703

A closer look at the ancient Buddha.

CSC_0701

The Sanshin mural inside the Sanshin-gak, which is situated to the left of the shrine for the ancient Buddha.

CSC_0705

A look at the shrine, as you make your way towards the main hall.

CSC_0709

A look along the main altar inside the main hall at Daeyulsa Temple.

CSC_0708

To the far right is this statue of Jijang-bosal.

CSC_0713

The blue fading Ox-Herding murals.

CSC_0717

A look across the back side of the main hall at some more of the Ox-Herding murals.

CSC_0720

A look at the fish wind-chime and surrounding mountains under a gorgeous blue sky.

CSC_0724

Some purple flowers in full bloom along the country road.

Now and Then: Tongdosa Temple

Tongdosa 1970s

Tongdosa Temple from the 1970s. 

Hello Again Everyone!!

Tongdosa Temple is situated on the southern slopes of the picturesque Mt. Chiseosan in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do. The name Tongdosa Temple means “Transmission of the Way Temple,” in English, and it was first established in 643 A.D. by the famed monk, Jajang-yulsa. Tongdosa Temple is a noted temple for several reasons, but its greatest claim to fame is that it was the first temple in Korea to house the earthly remains of the historical Buddha, Seokgamoni-bul. During his travels and studies in China, Jajang-yulsa visited the Yunjisi Temple. Here, he obtained the holy relics which included the Buddha’s robe, his begging bowl, a portion of his skull, and numerous sari (crystallized remains). Upon his return to the Korean peninsula, and through the support of Queen Seondeok (r. 632-647) he spread Buddhism throughout the Silla Kingdom (57 B.C to 935 A.D), and Jajang-yulsa established Tongdosa Temple to store the Buddha’s remains.

Like all great temples, Tongdosa Temple has an interesting creation myth. According to legend, at the time of the temple’s founding, there were nine dragons living in a pond on the grounds. Jajang attempted to make them leave so he could build the temple by reciting Buddhist scriptures. After they refused, and his previous attempt failed, Jajang inscribed the Chinese character for fire on a sheet of paper and tossed it in the air. He did this while splashing his long walking stick in the pond. The pond water began to boil. Unable to endure the heat, three dragons attempted to escape, but were too disoriented to do so; instead, they died by crashing into a cliff called Yonghyeolam (Dragon Blood Rock). An additional five dragons flew southwest towards a valley now called Oryong-gol (Five Dragon Valley). The final dragon of the lot, blinded by the boiling water, vowed to Jajang, if the monk spared his life, that the dragon would stay in the pond and protect the temple forever. Granting this wish, the dragon became the protector of Tongdosa Temple. And the Nine Dragons Pond, or “Guryong-ji,” in Korean, still remains to this day to the left of the main hall.

From its very creation, Tongdosa Temple thrived throughout its history. From state-sponsored Buddhism to the Confucian led Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), Tongdosa Temple has always been at the forefront of Korean Buddhism. Unfortunately, the temple was completely destroyed in 1592 by the invading Japanese during the Imjin War. But in 1645, the temple was reconstructed, including the Daeung-jeon main hall. More recently, the temple has undergone numerous renovations and rebuilds including the new temple museum which houses several of the temple’s treasures.

Tongdosa Temple is known as one of the three Korean jewel temples (삼보사찰) alongside Haeinsa Temple in Hapcheon, Gyeongsangnam-do and Songgwangsa Temple in Suncheon, Jeollanam-do. Specifically, Tongdosa Temple represents the “Bul” (Buddha) aspect of the three jewels. This focuses on the very spirit of the Buddha.

In total, there are nineteen associated hermitages spread throughout the Tongdosa Temple grounds. It also houses one national treasure, National Treasure #290, which just so happens to be the Daeung-jeon main hall and Ordination Platform (Geumgang Gyedan). It is also home to twenty-two additional treasures spread throughout the grounds, as well as the temple museum. Currently, Tongdosa Temple is attempting to become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Tongdosa Temple is Korea’s largest temple.

Tongdosa

Tongdosa Temple from the start of the last century.

Tongdosa1

An early 20th century picture of the Daeung-jeon main hall at Tongdosa Temple.

Picture-039

And part of the temple grounds today.

Picture-064

A look towards the main hall at Tongdosa Temple.

Picture-121

The Geumgang Gyedan with the Buddha’s remains housed inside the stone lotus bud.

Jukrimsa Temple – 죽림사 (Cheongdo, Gyeongsangbuk-do)

CSC_1129

The view from the main hall at Jukrimsa Temple in Cheongdo, Gyeongsangbuk-do.

Hello Again Everyone!!

During the spring, I made a day trip to the city of Cheongdo, Gyeongsangbuk-do and Jukrimsa Temple was the last of the three temples I had set out for myself. While smaller in size than the other two, it certainly had highlights of its own.

You first approach Jukrimsa Temple up one of the stranger roads with spray paint scrawled all over abandoned buildings pointing you in the right direction. When you first arrive in the temple parking lot, you’ll have to make your way past the temple’s kitchen. Once you pass by this building, which kind of screens the temple courtyard, you’ll finally be able to see the main hall. The exterior walls to this diminutive main hall are painted with some fading, but beautiful, Palsang-do murals. Above these, and above the entrances, are murals dedicated to both Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom) and Bohyun-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power).

As you enter the main hall, you’ll be greeted by some of the smaller statues in a main hall in all of Korea. Seated in the centre is a tiny statue of Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise). He’s joined on either side by two even smaller sized statues of Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion) and Daesaeji-bosal (The Power and Wisdom for Amita-bul). On the far left wall is a highly original mural of the Ten Kings of the Underworld. I can honestly say, I’ve never seen anything like it. It’s joined to the right by a mural dedicated to Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife). And to the far right is a masterful, yet smaller in size, guardian mural.

Out in front of the main hall is a two metre tall, five tier, stone pagoda. Between the main hall and the temple’s kitchen is a stone shrine dedicated to Yongwang (The Dragon King). The nuns’ quarters are the row of buildings to the far left in the temple courtyard.

Between the main hall and the nuns’ quarters, there’s a set of stone stairs that leads to an upper courtyard that houses two more temple halls. The first, and much longer, temple hall is the Samseong-gak shaman shrine hall. Out in front of this building were some beautiful wild daisies. The exterior walls to this hall are painted with Shimu-do, Ox-Herding, murals. As for inside, and sitting in the middle of the set of three, is a rather long Chilseong (The Seven Stars) mural. To the right hangs a painting of Dokseong (The Lonely Saint) and to the right is one of the more unique seated murals dedicated to Yongwang (The Dragon King). He’s without both his angry beard and eyebrows. He actually looks quite pleasant.

To the left of the Samseong-gak shaman shrine hall is the Sanshin-gak. Inside this smaller sized hall hangs a masterful portrait of Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit). Rather uniquely, and as you make your way back to the parking lot, there are some wild poppies growing there if you missed them the first time around. I say uniquely, because as far as I know, they are illegal to grow in Korea. Either way, the bright orange poppies are something to keep an eye out for, especially in the late spring and early summer months.

HOW TO GET THERE: From the Cheongdo train station, you’ll need to take a taxi  to Jukrimsa Temple. The taxi ride will last 7.5 k.m., and it’ll cost you 15,000 won.

OVERALL RATING: 5/10. There are some beautiful views of northern Cheongdo from Jukrimsa Temple. In addition to the view and the rare poppies that greet you in the temple parking lot, the unique Ten Kings mural inside the main hall and the Yongwang painting inside the Samseong-gak shaman shrine hall are something to keep in mind when visiting this little traveled temple.

CSC_1127

 The smaller sized main hall at Jukrimsa Temple.

CSC_1128

 The view from the temple courtyard.

CSC_1152

Just one of the Palsang-do murals.

CSC_1147

 A look inside the main hall at the main altar with the smaller sized statues.

CSC_1146

 The highly unique Ten Kings of the Underworld mural.

CSC_1148

 The guardian mural inside the main hall.

CSC_1145

 The stone Yongwang shrine.

CSC_1144

 A look up at the Samseong-gak.

CSC_1138

 The rather large and long Chilseong mural.

CSC_1140

 The rather pleasant-looking Yongwang.

CSC_1131

 The Sanshin-gak at Jukrimsa Temple.

CSC_1133

 The masterful Sanshin mural.

CSC_1136

 The daisies out in front of the Samseong-gak.

CSC_1154

 One last look from the temple courtyard.

CSC_1157

And the very rare orange poppies waiting for me in the temple parking lot.